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The EU-India Trade Partnership: A Potential Gamechanger in Reducing Reliance on China

The European Union and India have finally joined forces to create the Trade and Technology Council. And it comes at a time when the EU and India are in disagreement over Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. They did, however, reach an agreement on other concerns that had been delaying the implementation of the trading mechanism for years. The agreement is significant since the only other country with a technical agreement with the EU comparable to the one signed with India is the United States. And Ind

Understanding the Dynamics of Piracy in the Gulf of Guinea

The Gulf of Guinea (GoG), a 4,000-mile-long area in West Africa that stretches from Guinea to Angola, is a marine route connecting Europe and America to West, Central, and Southern Africa. Aside from its strategic position, the GoG is to be rich in hydrocarbons, and numerous Western nations rely on it for a significant of their crude oil.

In 2020, the International Maritime Bureau's documented 195 occurrences of piracy and armed robbery at sea, seeing more instances of crime than any other defi

Impact of Climate Change on the Efforts to Reach Land Degradation Neutrality

Niranjan Jose holds a BBA. LL.B (Hons.) degree from the National Law University Odisha, India. His research focuses on climate change, international political economy, and global security. He has presented papers at the Fifth International Conference on Social Sciences 2018 and the Seventh International Conference on Asian Studies 2019 on the topics “Saudi-Iranian Cold War: Analysis and Implications” and “Turkey: Regional aspirations in the changing Middle East.” His writings have appeared in Th

Heirs of the Sultan of Sulu and North Borneo v. Malaysia – Explaining the controversial Ad-hoc Arbitration Case

On Feb. 28, 2022, the arbitrator, Dr. Gonzalo Stampa, notified Malaysia to pay the heirs of the Sultan of Sulu and North Borneo $14.92 billion plus 10% interest per year and costs for using the natural resources of northern Borneo. In 1878, the Sultan of Sulu, Mohammed Jamalul Alam, signed a deal that gave Britain’s North Borneo Chartered Company the right to use the natural resources in northern Borneo, which is now Sabah (Malaysia), in exchange for annual rent payments. The claim by the descen

History in the Making: Rewriting Pinochet’s Constitution for Chile

Chile’s protests began because of an unpopular public transportation rate hike, similar to France’s 2018 “yellow vest” riots— with protestors going to the streets for larger demands, such as better living conditions. At the height of the protests, an estimated 1.2 million people gathered in Plaza Italia in Santiago, Chile’s capital. As a result, political groups reached an agreement to replace the 1980 constitution, which was tailored to Augusto Pinochet’s dictatorial preferences and those of th


In the past few decades, the world has made rapid strides in technology. While it is undeniable that phones and computers amongst a wide array of other technological advancements have become indispensable to our daily lives, the issue that is often neglected is that of their disposal. What happens to these electronic products when they reach the end of their life-cycle?

Bridging the Digital Divide: Promoting Inclusiveness and Connectivity for Sustainable Development | Science, Technology and Security forum

The COVID-19 pandemic has wreaked havoc on every aspect of life, including education, in an unexpected and long-lasting way. To keep our economies from coming to a halt, governments are maximizing online employment practices and improving e-health and e-learning capabilities. Academic institutions all over the globe have embraced online education as a way to make up for the significant drop in training hours. Professional and skilled workers in the economy have easily and effectively moved to on

Resetting Japan-Russia Relations: Opportunities and Challenges | Science, Technology and Security forum

Owing to a longstanding territorial dispute over the Kuril Islands (also known as northern territories) Russia and Japan, haven't established a peace treaty 75 years after WWII. The return of the islands had been historically important to Japanese leaders. The new Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga acknowledged the dispute in his first speech in the Parliament. He said that he plans to resolve the dispute with Russian President Vladimir Putin through comprehensive talks and is hoping to sign

Explained: Crisis in the Central African Republic

The story so far

The security and humanitarian situation in the Central African Republic (CAR) has rapidly deteriorated over the last several weeks. An alliance of rebel groups backing former President Francois Bozize has captured significant territories throughout the country. These forces are seeking to overturn the results of the December presidential elections, in which incumbent President Faustin-Archange Touadera was declared the winner. Mr. Bozize was not allowed on the ballot. The post-

India, Australia and Indonesia in the Indo-Pacific: Time for Trilateral Cooperation – Uttryck

The growing political importance of the Indian and Pacific Oceans has given new momentum to the ‘Indo-Pacific’ as a geostrategic construct. Indonesia, India, and Australia all share important bilateral strategic relationships and have an alignment of interests and goals in the Indo-Pacific region. The main priorities of their respective foreign policies are upholding the international “rule-based” system, protecting the territorial integrity of nations, and guaranteeing open sea communication li

The way forward for India’s policy on Tibet

Tibet is one of the that modern day China is most sensitive about (the other two are Taiwan and Tiananmen). Chinese authorities have clamped down on Tibetan monasteries by forcefully evicting monks and demolishing monastic residences, most notably, the Buddhist Academy in Sichuan. In Tibet, even a simple act such as possessing the Dalai Lama’s photo is a crime. Anyone found with the Tibetan national flag can be charged with the highest crime of separatism. , along with the Uyghur Muslims, are on

Iran's increasing reliance on China

The relationship between China and Iran has been in the spotlight recently. A huge, 25-year deal is reportedly being considered that would see $400 billion of Chinese investment in Iranian energy and transport infrastructure. The deal is the latest effort by Beijing to expand from a regional hegemon into a global power through the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) which aims to reshape regional economic topographies in its favour. Beijing has ostensibly undertaken to make such a massive investment

Understanding China’s growing presence in Afghanistan.

Since the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Afghanistan in 1950, the engagement between the countries remained limited largely to the economic domain. Beijing preferred to maintain a distance from political and security issues in Afghanistan and refused to recognize the pro-Soviet Communist regime in Kabul and remained officially inactive during the Taliban regime. Overall, up until 2001, the political and economic cooperation between Kabul and Beijing remained insignifican

String of Pearls in the Indian Ocean: How is India countering China in the Maldives?

The term ‘String of Pearls’ was initially published in 2005, in a document titled ‘Energy Futures in Asia’ presented to the United States Secretary of Defense Donald H Rumsfeld by Booz Allen Hamilton. A phrase that has been undeniably exotic to characterize China’s efforts to develop its presence in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR). The strategy of the ‘String of Pearls’ revolves around the construction of infrastructure networks in littoral countries from the South China Sea to the Middle East. Ac

Is Australia over-reliant on China?

Australia’s call for an investigation into China’s role as the origin of the Covid-19 pandemic is quickly morphing into a trade war, one that could have unhealthy impacts on both sides. China has imposed an import ban on four Australian abattoirs from May 12, the beef ban will affect about one-third of the country’s exports to China, with an annual value of US$800 million. Beijing’s ambassador Cheng Jingye is warning that his country will boycott beef, wine, tourism, and education institutions i

The U.S.-Philippines defence alliance: An Uncertain Future

The president of the Philippines officially filed for the revocation of the Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA), which provides U.S. troops with a legal basis to be available for military cooperation activities in the region after he had threatened to end the 21-year-old arrangement for months. The decision to end the pact follows anger at the reported decision by Washington last month to withdraw Philippine Sen. Ronald Dela Rosa’s US visa. The former National Police Chief, Dela Rosa, implemented th

The Eastern Mediterranean Heats Up: Turkey’s Energy Confrontation with Cyprus

The discovery of rich gas reserves in the Eastern Mediterranean in the last decade has triggered a race to tap the region’s underwater resources and escalated tensions between Turkey and Cyprus, as well as against the EU and Athens, which is a traditional ally of the Greek Cypriots. In July 1974, Turkey attacked Cyprus following an Athens-powered Greek Cypriot coup. Turkish troops invaded the northern part of the isla

The Afghan Peace Deal

After two years of formal negotiations, the Taliban and the United States signed an “Agreement for Bringing Peace to Afghanistan” in Doha, Qatar on February 29, 2020. The agreement has two sections; the Taliban agree that “Afghan soil will not be used against the security of the United States and its allies” and the United States consents to the withdrawal of all foreign forces from Afghanistan. This understanding was a preparation for intra-Afghan talks between the Afghan government, the Taliba

Sino-Russian relations and its impact on the United States

Chinese President Xi Jinping stated that Russian President Vladimir Putin is his “closest companion” during a three-day state visit early in 2019 to Russia. “In the past six years, we have met nearly 30 times. Russia is the country that I have visited the most times, and President Putin is my best friend and colleague,” Xi said at a question and answer session. Russia and China have been determined in reinforcing their partnership and encouraging further collaboration despite expanded political

Post COVID-19: A China-led World Order?

As the potential magnitude of the COVID-19 pandemic became clear in April, there was a lot of immediate speculation about what its impact would be. For countless individuals and families, ordinary life has just been overturned in already unfathomable manners. In any case, in what capacity will the pandemic impact the future conduct of states, governments, and leaders? Will they cooperate all the more intently, or will this further separate them? A significant number of those initial forecasts de


Even though the speech satisfied the legal test laid down by the Supreme Court on what constitutes an offense under 153A of the Indian Penal Code. Which criminalizes statements, or acts that have the effect of disturbing public tranquility or law and order by promoting enmity or creating fear between classes of people on basis of difference in religion, caste, language or place of birth. The police failed to register the First Information Report (hereafter, the “FIR”) against those who gave the

Beyond 2020: The Past and Next Fifty Years of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty —

2020 marks the fiftieth anniversary of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty’s entry into power and the twenty-fifth anniversary of its indefinite extension. This year also marks the seventy-fifth anniversary of the first and only use of nuclear weapons in a conflict. The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is the foundation of the global non-proliferation regime, but its internal irregularities are becoming increasingly problematic.

The upcoming 2020 review meeting will occ
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Since beginning my journey in International Affairs, my dedication to the work and motivation to grow has led me to exceptional professional and academic experiences.  I've had the privilege of spending a lot of my academic experience working on issue domains that interest me. These include climate change, global governance, international trade, and cybersecurity.